We develop dark spots for a multitude of reasons. Aside from hormonal changes and scarring, the most common factor is due to excessive UV exposure. When our skin is exposed to UV rays (which consists of mainly UVA and UVB rays), the UVB rays penetrate into the layer of our skin where melanocytes are. And since UV rays are damaging to the skin, melanocytes produce melanin as a natural defence to protect the skin. This also explains why people who are extremely fair tend to burn easily compared to people who have naturally darker skin tones. To transfer the melanin produced deep within skin layers to skin cells that are closer to the surface, melanocytes pass on these melanin pigments. And with age, our cellular turnover becomes irregular, which is why melanin is not evenly distributed over all skin layers and causes dark spots.
To effectively fight dark spots, you have to ensure that the melanin production is regulated, the melanin transfer is intercepted, as well as the cells containing melanin at the skin surface are eliminated. Since most ingredients are unable to target all three, skincare products often contain a mixture of several ingredients for a synergistic effect. Here, the top ingredients to look out for and the products to buy to banish dark spots.